Author: Juan Ortigosa García
Thales of Miletus
The history of electricity refers to the study and human use of the electricity, the discovery of its laws as a physical phenomenon and the invention of devices for practical use.
One of the early milestones can be placed around the year 600 b.c., when the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus observed that rubbing an amber rod with leather or wool, small loads were obtained (the tribo-electric effect) that attracted small objects, and when rubbing a long time it could cause the appearance of a spark.
Near the ancient Greek city of Magnesia there were stones called stones of Magnesia, which included magnetite. The ancient Greeks observed that pieces of this material were attracted to each other and also to small iron objects.
Alessandro Volta, or Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta, physicist and pioneer in studies of electricity, was born in Como, Lombardy, Italy, in 1745.
In 1780, Luigi Galvani, physician, naturalist and doctor at the University of Bologna, discovered that when two different metals were connected to the thigh of a frog, electrons circulated between the metals.
In 1794, Volta was determined to find alternatives that would allow him to obtain electricity without using animal tissue.
In 1800, Volta discovered that by placing two different metals in a glass with brine (water and salt) electricity was generated, he had invented the electric battery, which gave him worldwide fame, and in his honor the name VOLT was adopted.
A year later, the physicist in the presence of Napoleon carried out another demonstration of his current generator. Impressed, the French Emperor appointed him Count Volta and senator of the Kingdom of Lombardy.
The Emperor of Austria, meanwhile, appointed him director of the department of philosophy at the University of Padua in 1815.
The unit of electromotive force of the International System is called Volt and named in his honor since 1881.
André Marie Ampère
André-Marie Ampère was born in Lyon, France, in 1775. He never attended school and the only education he received was given by his father, a professional merchant, expert in Latin and French literature.
Ampère was a child prodigy, at the age of 12 he knew basic mathematics, even dominated the differential and integral calculus. It was a self-taught person example to the world.
In 1825 he formulated the "Law of Ampere", which postulates the basic relationship between electrical current and the emergence of an electromagnetic field.
He invented and built the "galvanometer" set the basis between electricity and magnetism, and called the current with his name, “Ampere”, “A” symbol we still use today.
In 1801 he was professor of physics and chemistry at Bourg-en-Bresse, and later at the École Centrale in Paris. Impressed by his talent, Napoleon promoted him to the position of general inspector of the new French University System, a position he held until the end of his days.
In his honor, the unit of intensity of current in the International System of Units bears his name.
MICHAEL FARADAY was born in Newington Butts, England in 1791. His father was a blacksmith and had poor health that did not allow him to contribute much to his family.
From a young age he helped his family delivering newspapers in exchange for tips.
His academic training was very scarce, limited to that received in a catechetical school where he learned to read, write and count.
At the age of thirteen he had to find work to help the family economy and, George Riebau, who had a library and bound books, hired him to run errands.
The family held together by a strong religious faith. The religious influence was important for Faraday since he later developed theories that were strongly influenced by the belief in the unity of the world.
After a year as an errand boy, he was hired as a bookbinder apprentice for George Riebau.
At the age of fourteen he began learning the art of bookbinding and after seven years of apprenticeship he was a real expert.
He learnt about Electricity reading the article "Electricity," by James Ritler, when rebinding the British Encyclopedia.
A client of Riebau provided Faraday with tickets for a series of lectures of Humphrey Davy on chemistry topics at the Royal Institution.
Faraday took notes of all lectures of Mr. Davy, binding them and sending them later to Mr. Davy, this fact made him win the friendship and consideration of Mr. Davy.
In 1812 a fortuitous accident changed his destiny. Mr. Davy became suddenly blind during a chemical experiment he was doing and hired Faraday as his assistant. Faraday learned the basics of physics and chemistry with Mr. Davy.
Starting as the master’s assistant and after becoming his successor at the Royal Institute that is where he remained anchored for most of his life. With the help of Mr. Davy he was able to contact with the most important scientific ideas of those times.
In 1824 he entered the Royal Society of London and the following year he was appointed director of the laboratory of the Royal Institution.
In recognition of his significant contributions, the unit of electrical capacity is called Farad.
In 1831, he began his most famous experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction, experiments that even today are the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology.
In 1833 he was appointed as the successor of Mr. Davy as professor of chemistry of the Royal Institution.
Two years later he was granted a lifetime pension of 300 pounds per year.
He has an honor plaque in Westminster Abbey near the grave of Isaac Newton.
His most important inventions were: the DC generator or dynamo and continuous current motor.
During 1831 and 1832, Michael Faraday discovered that a mechanical conductor moving in a magnetic field generated a difference of potential. Taking advantage of this, he built the first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disc, a homopolar generator, using a copper disc revolving between the ends of a horseshoe-shaped magnet, generating a small continuous current. It was also widely used as electrical power generator to power bicycle lights of low intensity.
Faraday homopolar Generator
Faraday never learned mathematics, but his findings were those that led to deep mathematical theories of electricity and magnetism. In particular the mathematical theory of Maxwell, who is now studied at all universities would not have been possible without the discovery of Faraday's laws, this is a fact that Maxwell repeated on many occasions.
Tomas Alva Edison
Thomas Alva Edison, the youngest of four siblings, was born on February 11, 1847 in Milan, a small town in Ohio, U.S.A.
At the age of seven, his father Samuel Edison moved to Port Huron, Michigan, where the future inventor first attended school. It was a very short experience that lasted only three months, after which he was expelled from the classroom, his teacher alleged the absolute lack of interest and awkwardness, this due to partial deafness, sequel of an attack of scarlet fever.
His mother, Nancy Elliot, who had served as a teacher before marriage, assumed hereafter to educate the youngest member of the family, inspiring in him a boundless curiosity that would be the most outstanding feature throughout his life.
At the age of ten, the young Thomas Edison set up his first laboratory in the basement of his parents’ house and taught himself the rudiments of chemistry and electricity.
At the age of twelve he sold newspapers on the trains, with permission from the railroad company he lived in a wagon, where he set up a used printing plate and a typewriter, which he bought second-hand, founding his newspaper, the Weekly Herald, where he edited and printed during the running of the train and sold to travelers.
In one of his physics experiments the wagon caught fire and the railroad company expelled him out of his press-wagon-house, so he had to find another occupation.
In 1862 he joined the telegraph office in Port Huron and a few months later working there, he invented a double telegraph, which could transmit two deliveries in reverse simultaneously on the same cable.
The success of his invention was of such magnitude that all network telegraph companies adopted it and in recognition of his merits he was appointed as an Engineer.
His inventions and “know-how” in business gave him fame and wealth, which allowed him to build his factory in Menlo Park in Orange, New Jersey, where he developed new quadruple and sextuple telegraph systems, which enabled the growth of his companies, globally.
Tomas Alva Edison
His company “Continental Edison Company” was introduced in all Europe, where Nikola Tesla worked for the one located in Paris.
In 1868, at the age of twenty-one, he could obtain the works of the British scientist Michael Faraday “Experimental Researches in Electricity”; those readings positively and definitely influenced him.
Faraday provided him the way to channel his inventive genius. Thomas Edison then became more organized and disciplined, and acquired the habit of carrying a notebook, always ready to write down any idea or fact that brought up his attention.
Thomas Edison left the job and decided to become an independent inventor, registering his first patent in 1868.
Very soon he received an assignment from the Western Union: A printer for the quotation of the stock market values.
His response to this challenge was his first great invention: the Edison Universal Stock Printer. He was offered $ 40,000 for the device, an amount that allowed him to finally settle down.
Soon Thomas Edison planned to build a true research center, a “factory for inventions”, as he called it, with a laboratory, library, workshops and housing for him and his collaborators.
He did not lack economic resources and the proportions of his projects did eventually demand them.
To locate his new lab he sought a quiet place, where he found a deserted farm in West Orange.
In West Orange, New Jersey, Thomas Edison built the Edison Laboratory, now a national monument, where numerous workshops were created, which provided jobs for more than five thousand people.
His best known invention is the light bulb or incandescent lamp, which allowed the creation of an electric company for the distribution and sale of electricity in continuous current (DC), for which he manufactured his own generators.
Thomas Edison may be the most prolific inventor in history, with over 1200 patents, which deserve special attention are: the Phonograph, the Micro Phone handset in 1877, the Kinescope in 1894 and ferronickel alkaline battery in 1914.
Most important inventions of Thomas Alva Edison
The light bulb Kinescope Audio recorder Phonograph
X- Rays Moving images Record player Telegraph
Television Electric car with “Edison batteries”
1914 Detroit Electric Brougham, from Ford Motor Company
“The car for women” was baptized in 1914, being the best car sold for women because of their minimal maintenance and smoothness of the engine. But weight and frequent battery recharging made it “not recommended” for rural roads or unpopulated areas.
Powered: by 50 “Edison batteries” of 108 total volts.
NIKOLA TESLA. Born in Smiljan, former Yugoslavia, in 1856, where he lived until the age of twelve. His father was the clergyman of the local Serbian Orthodox Church and his mother could not read nor write.
At the age of fourteen, he could read in four languages. At twenty two he completed his graduation as an Electromechanical Engineer in the Polytechnic of Graz, Austria.
Professor Poeschl, Professor of Physics at the Polytechnic School in Graz, in 1877 was showing students of Tesla’s engineering promotion a new DC motor, called “the Gramme machine”, which generated continuous current when spinning caused by some force and acted as an electric motor when connected to a DC electric potential, of continuous current; the reversible motor.
The design of the “Gramme machine” included brushes and a commutator that produced large sparks, Tesla believed those sparks could be somehow eliminated.
Peoeschl devoted an entire class to demonstrate the “fallacy” of Telsa’s idea, but failed to convince him. Five years later Tesla managed to eliminate those sparks in one of the strangest examples of scientific inspiration that history can remember.
One afternoon in February 1882, Tesla was strolling in the park in Budapest with his friend Szigeti, reciting some of his favorite lines of Faust. In this very context, place and moment he discovered the “rotating magnetic field” the foundation of the alternating current that would revolutionize the world.
The result of this vision was the Induction Motor, which he patented and manufactured, with such perfection that it is still used today, practically without any technical modification.
Tesla Motor Tesla Generator
Two months after his vision in the park, the powerful imagination of Tesla and his enormous talent, leads him to the following:
To mentally design all the elements of a complete system of power in alternating current (AC), which subsequently he patented.
Tesla tried to find interested people in his invention, first in Budapest and later in Paris, but found no answer as expected and decided to immigrate to America.
According to Bud Spurgeon, Tesla arrived in New York with four cents, some poems written by him, a blue print for a flying machine and a cover letter to Thomas Edison.
Tesla worked for a year for Thomas Edison, but his temperament, methodology and vision of the electricity separated him from Thomas Edison making their relationship doomed to total failure.
After his failed relationship with Thomas Edison, Tesla set up his own company, the “Tesla Electric Company” and to make that possible, he forced himself to work trenching in road works.
In his laboratory he was able to put into practice that entire mental storehouse that he had developed on alternating current.
In 1888 Tesla patented a complete system, consisting of motor, generator and transformer that were a complete plant for generating alternating current.
George Westinghouse was the first one to recognize the importance and significance of the discoveries of Tesla and after meeting with the inventor in his laboratory, he reported the purchase of the technology for the manufacture of polyphase alternating current generators, for a million dollars plus a royalty of one dollar per horsepower generated.
Subsequent studies have estimated the value of the royalties during the life of Tesla, at 12 million dollars.
Having sold his patent to Westinghouse he obtained the money to spend as he pleased.
Tesla never married because he thought that marriage required a dedication and time he could not take off his job.
To help Westinghouse to manufacture the first polyphase alternating current system, he went to Pittsburgh, where he worked only one year, although Westinghouse offered him a high position and a laboratory with all the equipment, Tesla said he worked at ease only if could personally control all of the projects, so he left Pittsburgh.
In 1893, Westinghouse introduced the first AC power plant with a great show consisting in providing the power for all electrical needs of the World Fair in Chicago. Being so successful Westinghouse was selected to install the first large hydroelectric plant at Niagara Falls, with a capacity of 5,000 HP.
World Fair Chicago 1893
During the Chicago World Fair in 1893, Tesla obtained his great opportunity. When Westinghouse submitted a budget for half what was proposed by General Electric, he was awarded the Fair lighting and Tesla could display the generators, multiple dynamos, alternating current (AC) motors and light bulbs.
Edison and Westinghouse fought a public relations battle, which the newspapers called "The War of the Currents," to determine which system would become the dominant technology. In response, Thomas Edison invented the electric chair and electrocuted dogs, cats and even an elephant to prove that alternating current was dangerous. "Opsy" the elephant stepped into immortality in 1903 in a film with the name "Topsy”. (You can search by Google with the name: “Topsy, the electrocuted elephant”)
The alternating current was adopted throughout the country and Thomas Edison had to change the systems even though he proposed a law to ban the use of alternating current alleging to be very dangerous.
Tesla is the true inventor of radio:
First of all, Tesla invented the parallel resonant circuit, which is essential to tune the radio.
In 1897 Tesla sent the first radio signals from his laboratory to a boat on the Hudson Bay, 25 miles away.
In 1898, Tesla made the first public demonstration of radio communication, combined with the first demonstration of robotics. The show was held in Madison Square Garden and was a tremendous success. The robot was a boat several feet long, made of iron with a sealed cover. In the square there was a large tank of water constructed in order that the boat could float inside. In the demonstration Tesla ordered the ship's movements by radio transmission and the ship obeyed to Tesla’s orders, the crowd thought they were witnessing magic.
Tesla´aerial Tesla’ boat
Tesla could not exploit most of his important inventions.
The transmission of electricity without cables
For the real demonstration of his electrical distribution system without cables, (i.e. wireless), Tesla needed a field laboratory and enough space.
His patent attorney negotiated with the power company “Colorado Springs Power Company” so that Tesla could carry out his demonstration at the boundary of Colorado Springs.
In 1899 Tesla had built a huge wooden laboratory, equipped with a huge coil, acting as a transmitter.
In Colorado Springs he carried out the first demonstrations of lighting the space, with great balls of light that were transmitted by its coil, he intended to use this technology, as it will be seen later, in the lighting of the seas. The balls of light astonished the local population who came from all places to watch.
To discourage the curious people and avoid visits, Tesla announced that he was working on a new secret weapon that could kill three hundred thousand people at once.
Tesla at his Colorado Springs laboratory
The most amazing show in history was the wireless electric distribution that consisted of two hundred lamps illuminated at a distance of 26 miles of its transmitter coil in Colorado Springs.
Tesla, 20 kilowatts lit light bulbs, 26 miles away
When he finished the Colorado Springs experiments, in late 1898, Tesla returned to New York and his friend Robert Underwood, editor of Century, invited him to write an article about the issue of energy in the future, with particular reference to solar energy.
In his article in Century, he affirmed that burning crude oil to produce electricity was barbaric and completely wrong; adding that with his discovery of sending electricity through the electric field of the earth, all electrical needs could be covered. The article also explained his plan to solve all the world's energy needs through hydro generators installed in all the rivers of the earth that could accomplish it and distributing the energy generated by his invention.
Referring to the solar energy and among all the known methods, searching for the best method for deriving energy from the sun would, in many ways, contribute to the progress of civilization.
Tesla’s article in Century had a great impact in the scientific and financial media. One who showed a great interest was the millionaire J.P. Morgan, who invited Tesla to his home to explain him about his system of wireless transmission of electricity in detail.
The contacts between Tesla and J.P. Morgan crystallized into an agreement to undertake a titanic project, which was named WARDENCLYFFE project, where J.P. Morgan funded in its first stage.
The site chosen for the project was Suffolk County in Long Island, through a contract with a local builder, where it was planned to build housing for the thousands of people who would work on the project.
A brochure was published in 1901 in Long Island, explaining the amazing features of the Project which included among other activities, the following:
1. Construction of the largest power plant, conceived in his era, with an electrical output of ten million horsepower, i.e. 7,600 million kilowatts, which would be distributed through the air.
2. Interconnection with all the telegraph offices worldwide.
3. Establishment of a secret government telegraphs service that could not be interfered.
4. Interconnection with all telephone offices worldwide.
5. Universal distribution of news by the telegraph or telephone in connection with the newspapers.
6. Establishment of a global intelligence system for private use only.
7. Interconnection and operations with all global stock markets and their quotations.
8. Establishment of a global system of music distribution.
9. Global establishment of time information, highly precise.
10. Transmission by Facsimile of manuals, letters and documents.
11. Establishment of a global system of navigation aid that would allow ships to sail without a compass, accurate information on their location, time and speed, thus preventing collisions and disasters.
12. Grand opening of a global printing system on land and sea.
13. Copying worldwide of photography, paintings and all kinds of drawings and recordings.
In the mind of the man who thought that with his technology he could shake the whole planet, were the ideas of all possible forms of communication and all of that, nine years before the famous telegraph transmission across the Atlantic carried out by Marconi and sixteen years before David Sarnoff wrote his “Music Box Memo”, outlining the first idea, considered “a moving idea”, of the first radio station that could send music to the American households.
At that time Tesla wrote the following:
“In the near future we will see a huge amount of new uses of the electricity, we will be able to disperse the fog with electrical forces, wireless stations will be constructed for the purpose of illuminating the oceans, transmission of the image will be a near reality, electric typewriters will obey the human voice, we will have smoke annihilators, dust absorbers, water, air, food and clothing sterilizers..."
If we use crude oil in order to obtain electricity, reserves will quickly end. This method, barbaric and unjustifiable, must be stopped it in the interest of future generations. The inevitable conclusion is that the potential of water is by far our most valuable resource.
With the full development and improvement of wireless energy transmission systems to any distance it will be possible to solve all the problems of material existence of man. Distance, which is the main impediment to human progress, will be completely annihilated in thought, word and action. Humanity will unite, wars will become impossible and peace will be the ultimate realm.”
Probably the most important fact in the history of man on Earth, that could have changed the fate of humanity, happened at this time and was the decision made by J.P. Morgan to withdraw his financial support to the WARDENCLYFFE project.
It can never be understood why J.P. Morgan did not allow the completion of the project and its implementation.
J.P. Morgan's decision could represent something more than his withdrawal from the project, since it is also understandable that from that precise moment, Tesla had all doors closed to other possible sources of funding.
Tesla had invested all his fortune on the WARDENCLYFFE project, and the man who invented alternating current, which has allowed the development of humanity as today it is understood, could not find funding to continue the great project of his life, being the one who could change the fate of humanity and the history of Science.
In a publication issued in 1978 by Lafferty, Harwood & Partners Ltd. in Montreal, it was studied that all the ingredients lead to the inevitable conclusion that Tesla was the victim of a conspiracy by the major railroad, steel and coal companies, planned and carried out all by J.P. Morgan.
But Tesla’s technology is still an unresolved subject and one of the biggest frustrations for the scientific world, which a hundred years later can neither affirm nor deny the technology of the WARDENCLYFFE project.
The scientists of his time got nervous just by hearing the name of Tesla, according to Lafferty, Harwood & Partners, they had true phobia towards Tesla, while the reason might be true envy of his findings considered too advanced for their time. Many maybe could have been glad of J.P. Morgan’s decision, but it is not understandable that no one raised his voice to the fact or that nobody helped him.
Tesla rejected many times when he was asked to discuss about his technology, giving always the same answers:
a. I am speaking about “another” electricity.
b. I use electricity in a different way as it is used by others.
In 1912 Tesla was nominated for the Nobel Prize jointly with Thomas Edison, but he rejected the prestigious award, and the reason why of this resignation there have been given many different interpretations. Some say the reason was his problematic relation with Thomas Edison, that he did not consider him a scientist of his level and the possible revenge for his campaign to discredit the alternating current. Others think it was the manifest unfairness by the Nobel Award in 1909 that went to Marconi for the invention of the radio, obviously an invention that corresponds to Tesla.
Whatever the cause, Tesla had many reasons to show his outrage for the many injustices committed against him and I think the world owes him compensation.
With the cessation of WARDENCLYFFE project we missed a great opportunity to have solved the global energy problem and what could be even worse, the loss of a technology that promised a new course of the planet.
But mankind has continued thinking about Tesla, one, trying to find his secrets and the other monitoring the possibility that others might find them before they do.
In the last years of the Cold War, the Americans believed that the Russians had found the secrets and they blamed them for many natural disasters and in return the Russians believed the Americans were building a shield based on Tesla’s technology.
The Pentagon hired Golka Associates, Brockton, Mass., to study Tesla’s technology. The company was established by Robert A. Golka, a man who had studied extensively the work of Tesla. Under the contract they built a copy of a Tesla transmitter in an Air Force hangar in Wendover, Utah.
The project involved the best minds of modern times and the results according to their statements were not fortunate, Tesla took the basic laws of his technology with him to the grave.
Some independent thinkers believed they had found the secrets of Tesla, as is the case of Andrija Puharich, according to the article titled "The Physics of the Tesla Magnifying Transmitters, and the Transmission of Electrical Power without Wires." which describes the Tesla transmitter as follows:
Between the surface of the Earth and the top of the atmosphere there exists an electrical potential of about two billion volts. This vast and inexhaustible electric energy reserve shows us the magnitude of available power.
According to Andrija Puharich, Tesla conceived a system to exploit this vast reserve of energy, essentially static, making it come into resonance at a frequency which Puharich called the frequency of Tesla.
Tesla’s Electric car
In 1931, Petar Savo, 32 years old, who was born in Yugoslavia in 1899 and Tesla's nephew, was invited by his uncle to go to New York, in order to reveal several of his secrets. Uncle and nephew moved to Buffalo, where Tesla showed Petar his latest invention, which he called "gravitational energy converter."
Tesla had a 1930 Pierce Arrow car, one of the luxury cars of his time, where the gasoline engine was changed to an electric one; the engine was shaped round about 1 meter long and 65 centimeters in diameter, with a fan at the front. Tesla never said who the manufacturer of the engine was, though it was assumed that Westinghouse had manufactured it. The clutch, gearbox and transmission to the rear wheels were left unchanged.
The "gravitational energy converter" was built by Tesla himself. The dimensions of the converter housing were approximately 60 x 25 x 15 cm. The converter was installed in front of the dashboard, and among other things it contained 12 electronic valves "Vacuum Tubes", three of which were of a type: 70L7-GT, power rectifiers. Out of the converter were: a heavy antenna of approximately 1.8 meters high and two thick bars of 10 cm each.
The energy source was a frame with electronic valves, called “Vacuum tubes” located in the glove compartment. Connected to the converter was a heavy antenna about 1.8 meters long, which was sticking out of the car. The antenna was fed to a tuner, once tuned to the correct frequency it gave 240 volts to the input of the converter.
The electric car was kept at about 20 miles from Buffalo, at a farm near Niagara Falls.
Tesla believed in transmitting the wireless power from the central plant of Niagara Falls, thinking that this solution could be used by everyone in the future.
Tesla must have discussed the issue in depth together with his partner J.P. Morgan, who was not convinced and ended up arguing about the issues that were not solved like the security measures of the consumption of each car, or where the meters would be installed. Probably the disagreement between Tesla and J.P. Morgan had some influence on the removal of the J.P. Morgan WARDENCLYFFE project.
Tesla tested the full performance of his electric car for a week, casting the amazing following results:
· The converter provides enough energy and power to feed an entire house, plus the necessary to boost the car.
· The car reached the 1800 revolutions per minute without difficulty.
· Effortless speed reaching 90 miles per hour.
· There was no significant difference with gasoline cars.
· At a stop sign, a passerby observed that there were no fumes from the exhaust pipe. As Petar obviously answered “It has got no motor!"
· The car did not have to charge batteries because there were no batteries.
1930 Pierce Arrow - Tesla’s car
Tesla knew he could not make his electric car come true, because nobody would have allowed him a breakthrough that mighty for his era, and I am convinced that it neither would be allowed in ours.
Juan Ortigosa García
ANALYSIS OF THE PAST AND SOME THOUGHTS OF THE PRESENT
I have briefly analyzed the greatest geniuses of the electricity, those who have discovered the basic laws of the electric energy and those who have invented the devices or equipment for practical use.
Probability many geniuses have remained out of my list but I have selected the clearest minds I consider for the case and purpose of this writing that through their example may help us find convincing answers that justifies the today “drought” in the knowledge of the electric energy.
The selected group of geniuses discovered the foundations of the electricity we use today, although we still understand neither the nature nor the true functioning of the electricity.
The most important discoveries of Tesla, which he could not put in operation because he was not allowed, are light years ahead of our knowledge and we will probably never get to know them for the following reasons:
1 We have mistaken the course of basic investigation
2 The methodology of our Universities restricts creativity
3 Scientists today are not ready for the discoveries.
4 We only advance in innovation, which is to improve what we already know how to do, but we do not know how to get started at basic discoveries.
The fathers of electricity are a great example to follow, we must learn from them: their lives, their knowledge, manners and habits.
It would be a great exercise to do and to answer the following questions:
Q Is all discovered or all invented?
A No, what we know is like a drop of water but what we ignore is the ocean. (Isaac Newton).
Q Why during the last 200 years, we still have no discoveries in electricity?
A Because we have established an inadequate methodology for basic research.
Q Have we lost scientific creativity?
A Yes, because we have abandoned the metaphysics and our engineers leave the Universities incapable to visualize with their minds, the physical phenomena that formulas represent.
Q Are we all guilty for the loss of creativity?
A Yes, and for the following reasons:
· We use mathematical models to discover laws and dimensions of Physics that we do not know, reaching to results that do not represent the physical phenomena.
· The mathematical models are fundamental in order to understand and preview the future based on statistical variables but inadequate to predict the unknown laws of Physics.
· Mathematics is a helpful tool, created by man, like computer science, computers or a GPS, but no tool created by man can become the teacher of his creator. It would be ridiculous and absurd to think that someday computers will discover the laws of Physics that man has never imagined before.
The fathers of the electricity never had the restrictions derived from wrongly applied mathematical models, like we can appreciate here below:
1. None of them used the mathematical models for their findings.
2. All of them were self-taught persons in their specialty.
3. All of them found the solutions that they searched for, in their minds.
4. All of them saw with their minds the laws of Physics they were searching for.
5. None of them had professors in their specialty.
On our planet we are still using Uranium, Gas and Crude oil, to obtain electric energy that later we use with efficiency less than 10% of its possibilities.
If we keep on wasting energy as we are doing today, we will end with all the reserves, we will not be able to leave our planet and reach another habitable before being engulfed by our sun.
To a large extent, the enormous waste of electric energy is due to the lack new discoveries about generation and uses of the electric energy.
With the multiplication of the electric power and water dissociation by inverse resonance, all the energy problems of the planet would be solved.
Acording to the Model, the useful power of a generator is inversely proportional to the quality Q of the receptors.
The quantity of useful power of a generator depends on the quality factors Q, of the engines windings connected to the generators. The formula to calculate Q is the following:
The motor is ideal when R = 0, in which case, Q = infinite.
The great PARADOX of the Theoretical Model is: That the ideal engine is th only that produces no work. The work begins when the engine is no longer the ideal and increases as it moves away from the ideal model.
The formula W=V I cosφ, that universally is used to calculate the electric power, is obtained in the following equation:
In the equation, the second term in brackets is zero, because it represents the average value of a sinusoidal magnitude during a double period, and based on this consideration the equiation beomes:
The Cos φ does not exist because electricity is not vectorial. The angle does not exist. This formula does not represent the real electric power of an alternating current generator.
- Ignorance of the true nature of the electric energy.
- Efficiency below 10% of its real potential.
- The Mathematical model used is only valid for vectorial magnitudes and the alternating current is not vectorial.
- The Ideal Motor is the only one that does not produce any work.
- More than 90% of natural resources used in the generation and utilization of the alternating current are wasted.
- With the mathematical model used it is not possible to:
- Multiply the electric power in the alternating current.
- Transmit electricity in the alternating current without cables.
- AC resonance.
- Use hydrogen from water as a cheap and infinite fuel.
- Guarantee the energy in the future.
- Travel around our galaxy.
- Competitive electric vehicles.
In the following figure, the blue graphic represents the variation of the sine of the angle φ, in the course of a full rotation, 2π radians or 360 degrees.
The sine of an angle is a vectorial magnitude, with a numerical module, a direction and a sense, in this case a circular rotation.
But also the same graphic represents the voltage of an alternating current cycle, knowing it is not vectorial, as shown below.
In this case the variation of the sine of the angle φ, wich is the same vectorial magnitude in the case of the previous figure, represents an AC voltage cycle. But knowing that electricity is not vectorial, we again have to affirm that it is another great PARADOX, as in the case of the impossible cube, in this case the impossible generator, as we will see.
Is the rotating element the EFFECT or the electrons?
It cannot be the EFFECT, because in the time of a cycle, which is 20 milliseconds at 50 Hertzs, would travel 6,000 Kms, which means that the circumference length would have to be 6,000 Kms, at least, and there is no generator of such dimensions and of course it would be impossible to build.
The electrons cannot be either, because its maximum speed is 17 centimeters per second and in 20 milliseconds the electrons would travel 0.34 cm, which means that the length of the circumference should be 0.34cm, maximum, truly absurd.
The true conclusion is that there is no element, nor effect, which turns in a circumference, because electricity is not vectorial, electricity moves in other dimensions that represents the true physical phenomenon.
Ortronic®, with no Paradoxes, Limitations nor Incoherencies
Ortronic® is a registered trademark, which represents the technology developed by the Spanish Scientific Juan Ortigosa García and the products derived therefrom.
Ortronic® technology is based on the discovery of new dimensions of the electricity; which allows us to say that it is A NEW CONCEPT OF THE ELECTRICITY.
Ortronic® technology cannot be understood from the basis of traditional knowledge, for the following reasons:
- Traditional knowledge does not represent the true physical phenomenon.
- As we have seen, the mathematical model is false.
The Universal Laws of Physics do not change, what changes is the true knowledge of them, there are many examples in History of Science, taking for example: batteries, which were used for a hundred years without really knowing how they worked.
Ortronic® does not contradict the universal law of conservation of energy or the first law of thermodynamics: "Energy is neither created nor destroyed; it is only transformed".
The bases that Ortronic® contradicts are:
- The traditional knowledge about electricity, because it is incomplete and incoherent.
- The mathematical model used for calculation, because it does not represent the physical phenomenon, it limits its widespread use and denies the theoretical possibility of "perpetual motion".
Ortronic® is the result of a new method for Scientific Research, based on Aristotle's Metaphysics in the interpretation advocated by J.Gómez Caffarena, and understood by the Greek meaning "Beyond the Physics".
The modern scientific methodology, based on the search for mathematical models that allow us to discover new dimensions of physics, in the light of the conclusions of this essay and the results of the last 200 years, can be considered a true failure.
Ortronic® technology represents today, the bases of a new awakening of the electric energy.
Signed by: Juan Ortigosa García
Madrid, march 2012.